In recent years, trends in people’s movements have been constantly analysed. Recent studies of mobilities have increasingly superimposed migration studies. When investigating the relationship between mobility and migration studies, scholars must first challenge some of the assumptions that underpin common conceptions of international migration within the context of the global state system. The connection also highlights the question of agency for people who are or have been on the road.
Switzerland’s New Migration and Mobility Dynamics
The Migration-Mobility Nexus refers to the transition between two types of mobility; on one, migration can get characterised as a one-time, long-term, or permanent shift from one location to another. On the other hand, one can define mobility as (a sequence of) numerous, short movements between diverse places.
The contrast between inclusive and diverse logic in regimes and the reality of migration and mobility have created new dynamics in numerous disciplines and are all part of this nexus.
Mobility in the labour market
Switzerland uses policies that are comparable to those in Western European/OECD nations to foster quality job results for some—but not all—non-EU persons having the right to work. Long-term residents and their families have access to study grants and the whole labour market. At the same time, self-employment, state employment services, social support, including language courses, education and training, are available.
Reunification of families
Non-EU families in Switzerland suffer some of the most challenging family reunion procedures, ranking below the average EU/OECD country and in the international bottom ten, alongside Austria, Germany, and France. Non-EU citizens are unable to apply for their complete nuclear family. They must meet some of the most stringent criteria in the industrialised world, while reunited family members may be reliant on their sponsor for years. Non-EU families in Switzerland suffer some of the most challenging family reunion procedures, ranking below the average EU/OECD country and in the international bottom ten, alongside Austria, Germany, and France.
Education – Swizz authorities working on improvements
Swiss cantons are adjusting schools to the demands and benefits of a diverse classroom, with targeted advice, training, and language support, based on typical policies of Western European/OECD countries. In terms of possible areas for improvement, Swiss schools must guarantee that all students have access to both compulsory and non-compulsory education and address issues of segregation and diversity at school.
Health – Mandatory basic insurance for migrants
Switzerland’s migrant health laws, based on the universal right and obligation to basic insurance for all, are ranked one of the best globally, just behind Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden. The world-leading “Migration and Health” programme in Switzerland aims to improve immigrant health outcomes by providing accessible and responsive services to all types of migrants.
The bilingual website migesplus.ch, the INTERPRET Centre and telephone service for community interpreting, national networks such as the Swiss Hospitals for Equity Network, training modules, and research/monitoring are examples of these approaches.
Getting health insurance is compulsory in Switzerland. Various health insurance companies can help you understand the different types of health insurance. PrimApp is one the best Online health Comparison tools and is easy to use, as it is available in English, French and Italian.
Promoting immigrants’ political engagement is confidence in destination nations and cantons like Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Graubunden, Basel-Stadt, Jura, Fribourg, Geneva, Neuchâtel, and Vaud, which have policies that are typical of Western Europe. Since the 2000s, these cantons have allowed immigrant-led civil society to enjoy voting rights, advisory bodies, information campaigns, and funding alternatives.
Permanent residence – Time consuming process in Switzerland
Switzerland’s permanent residence emerges as one of Western Europe’s weakest integration instruments, falling below the average EU/OECD countries in the international bottom ten. One of the most time-consuming and challenging approaches to long-term residency delays equal chances for newcomers and leaves the status of most non-EU residents in Switzerland uncertain.
Acquiring Citizenship is difficult for immigrants
In Switzerland, immigrants, their children, and even their grandchildren face more extended, more demanding, and expensive paths to citizenship than in the average Western European/OECD country. Clearer citizenship rights for immigrants and the second generation could promote immigrants’ acceptability, socioeconomic level, political engagement, sense of belonging, and trust, all of which are now below average in Switzerland.
Switzerland is the only European country with a slightly unfavourable approach to anti-discrimination, lacking a comprehensive national law or a legal-standing equality body. It ranks far below EU/OECD standards in the international bottom ten. A significant proportion of people are vulnerable to racial, ethnic, religious, and nationality discrimination. Anti-discrimination regulations appear to have a long-term influence on public perceptions, discrimination awareness, reporting, trust, and other integration results.
Opportunities arise primarily as a result of changes in cantonal integration techniques. For its improvements in the Swiss cantons’ healthcare systems, the Swiss National Program on Migration and Health has been designated world-leading. Cantonal policies on job mobility and political engagement are comparable to Western Europe. Non-EU immigrants have considerably diverse possibilities for the labour market, public life, education and training, and health care depending on the canton. Academic and government indicators keep track of the disparities in policies and outcomes between cantons.